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Diverticulitis: Sacs in Colon

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Diverticula are small bulging pouches that can often form in the lower part of the large intestine (colon) for people over the age of 40. The formation of these pouches is known as diverticulosis. These pouches usually don’t cause any problems but they can become inflamed or infected. This condition is known as diverticulitis.

The signs and symptoms of diverticulitis include pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal tenderness, and constipation. While mild diverticulitis can be treated with rest, disregarding changes in your diet and intaking antibiotics may result in more severe diverticulitis, thus requiring surgery.    

Possible diverticulitis complications include: Perforation and peritonitis, abscess and phlegmon, fistula, and intestinal obstruction.

  • Diverticulitis usually creates perforations in the diverticula and in severe cases, these small openings can grow large and spill the colon’s contents into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity. This can cause peritonitis, which is the inflammation and infection of the abdominal cavity. Treating peritonitis involves an emergency procedure where the damaged part of the colon is removed and the abdominal cavity is cleaned out.
  • An abscess is an infected pocket filled with pus while a phlegmon is an infected area within the tissue. Both can form along the wall of the colon. Antibiotics can be used to treat abscesses and phlegmons, but more serious cases require surgery in order to remove the affected tissue.
  • A fistula is an abnormal connection between an organ and another structure.  Diverticulitis can make a fistula that connects the colon with the bladder, vagina, or small intestine. Treating a fistula usually requires surgery in order to repair the fistula and the surrounding tissues.
  • Intestinal obstructions are blockages of the colon that severely narrows the colon. Intestinal obstructions are usually treated with surgery in order to remove the affected part of the colon.

Diverticulitis usually occurs amongst older individuals, however, there are other known causes such as being obese, eating too much red meat, and not exercising regularly. Hence, for the youth as well the aged, pay attention to your diet and make sure you are active.

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Alzheimers

The Difference Between Dementia and Alzheimer’s Explained

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The difference between dementia and Alzheimer’s is unknown to many people. As a result,  they are used interchangeably during everyday understanding and conversation. So what is the difference between these two terms? According to a report from National Institute on Aging, dementia is a brain-related disorder that negatively impacts the performance and communication of routine activities. On the other hand, Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that impacts brain parts, particularly those parts that control language, memory, and thoughts. Here are some specifics on each of the terms.

What is dementia?

A big misconception is that dementia is a disease; in fact, it is considered a syndrome, which is a group of symptoms that do not have a definitive diagnosis. Therefore, we can think of dementia as an umbrella term used for a set of different symptoms. Some of these symptoms include loss of memory and impaired thinking, which is connected with the cognitive decline of the phenomenon of aging. A range of screening tests is used by doctors to find out the root cause of dementia such as brain scans, mental status assessments, and blood tests. There are many types of dementia symptoms including the following.

  1. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: CJD occurs when a protein is folded into an abnormal shape, thus resulting in brain damage and rapid mental decline. Some of the common symptoms of CJD are mood changes, movements composed of twitching, and issues with walking properly.
  2. Frontotemporal Dementia: FTD is a form of dementia symptoms in which the nerve cells located in the front and side of the brain are lost. This leads to personality and behavior changes that are quite pronounced.

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

According to the statement of the Center for Disease Control, the common cause behind dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in around 70% of all the cases of dementia. In reality, Alzheimer is regarded as a progressive disease of the brain leading to memory loss and cognitive decline.  The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease comprise of confusion, impaired speech, and impaired thought. These symptoms start to appear around the age of 60.

Additional differences between the two diseases

Whenever a patient is diagnosed with dementia, they are also being diagnosed with a number of different symptoms. This can be compared to diagnosing a sore throat. The throat is sore but the actual reason for this cause is not known. It could be a common cold, strep throat, or allergies. Likewise, when a person is suffering from dementia, they are encountering symptoms without knowing what the reason is behind these symptoms.

An additional difference between these two diseases is that Alzheimer’s disease is not reversible. It is incurable and degenerative at this time. However, some types of dementia, such as vitamin deficiency or drug interaction, are actually temporary or reversible.

More research and public awareness is needed

While families experiencing Alzheimer’s and dementia diseases have a clear understanding of the respective diseases, more public awareness is needed for these diseases. Additional understanding of what are the factors causing Alzheimer disease will assist in clearing any ambiguity, thus resulting in better treatment plans.

Sources:

  1. https://www.alzheimers.net/difference-between-alzheimers-and-dementia/
  2. https://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/alzheimers-and-dementia-whats-the-difference#1
  3. https://www.healthline.com/health/alzheimers-disease/difference-dementia-alzheimers#alzheimers-disease

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Alzheimers

Is Bad Oral Hygiene Connected with Alzheimer’s Disease?

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Alzheimer’s a neuronal disease that progressively forms plaques and tangles to healthy brain cells and eventually dies. This unfortunate disease affects 47 million people worldwide and there is currently no cure. However, research findings have presented that there is hope.

A new study in the Journal Science Advances found a correlation between the high amounts of bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalism, and the effect on brain deterioration. This bacteria is associated with gum disease and researchers found toxic enzymes produced by it.

Experiments were done on mice that showed early- stage Amnesia had a significantly higher infection of P.gingivalis and amyloid plaques in their brains compared to normal brains. Note that this evidence is only a lead of how gum disease and Alzheimer’s are correlated, but not a matter of causation.

Photo by Amauri Acosta Montiel on Unsplash

This is the first time in research that showed these enzymes can kill neurons, and now there is clinical research ongoing to develop a drug that could clear this bacterial infection. However, there are multiple other factors such as genetics and lifestyle that need to be considered before confirming the true diagnosis of Alzheimer’s.

In other words, there is still ambiguity on knowing whether gum disease increases the risk of Alzheimer’s or if people with dementia incur gum disease because of poor oral care. Hopefully, the discovery of a new therapy could one day be the cure to treat humans as the brain and human bacterium plays a central role in development.  

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Did You Hear About the Woman Who Cannot Hear Men’s Voices?

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Remember all the times your parents might have told you not to blast the music so loud? Well, they are right. Surrounding yourself in a noisy environment could eventually lead to a loss of hearing over time, and can increase the possibility for other auditory loss symptoms.

Last week, a woman named Ms. Chen from China was diagnosed with a rare disease called reverse-slope hearing loss. As mentioned first on Daily Mail, she woke up one morning and was unable to hear her own boyfriend’s voice.

This condition affects only about 3,000 people in the U.S. and Canada and is a genetic condition that is unfortunately untreatable. This disease affected the fluid surrounding inner hair cells and was potentially triggered by a sudden viral infection.

The patient is unable to hear low-pitched voices and can only listen to women’s voices that are naturally higher pitched. Also, these patients are unable to hear vowels, which have a low pitch energy that our eardrums cannot perceive.

There is a slight hope if the ear, nose, throat (ENT) specialist could catch the condition overnight and provide a steroid injection, but most conditions are permanent. The patient revealed that she has been under large amounts of stress which may have caused it.

More Information on Reverse- Slope Hearing Loss (RSHL)

This hearing loss mostly affects low-frequency audible noises. It is caused by a dominant gene that affects the inner hair cells, which send messages from outside sounds to the brain.  

Some symptoms include difficulty understanding speech and men’s volume. It is difficult to hear low tuned environmental noises such as the refrigerator humming. Many people who use a hearing aid utilize it to hear higher frequency noises, so it would not be an effective tool for people diagnosed with RSHL. People with this disorder require a different amplification so that they would need different settings.

Photo from Pexels

This rare disease is difficult to treat because not many physicians have encountered this disorder. Although the symptoms are not severe, it is critical to hear low environmental noises, such as a car heading towards you.

There are some starting points to treat RSHL, such as using a digital, multichannel, nonlinear hearing aid. This would amplify lower frequency settings at a level that is comfortable for the patient.

Reference: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6574093/Woman-unable-hear-voices-men-pick-higher-frequency-tones-females.html

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